Travel & Tours

History of Oil and Gas in Nigeria

The early background (1908 – 1960) – The historical past of oil exploration in Nigeria dates back again to 1908 when Nigerian Bitumen Company carried out exploratory operate in the place nonetheless, the agency left the country at the onset of Globe War I. Thereafter, license was provided to D’Arcy Exploration Firm and Whitehall Petroleum. Nevertheless, each organizations did not uncover oil of professional worth and returned their licenses. In 1923 new license covering 357,000 sq. miles was offered to a new company named Shell D’arcy Petroleum Advancement Company of Nigeria. The new organization was a consortium of Shell and British Petroleum (then known as Anglo-Iranian). The organization commenced exploratory work in 1937. The consortium was granted license to explore oil all over the territory of Nigeria but in 1951 and then between 1955 and 1957, the acreage allotted to the firm in the authentic license was reduced. Drilling activities started out in 1951 and the 1st take a look at well was drilled in Owerri area. Shell-BP in the pursuit of commercially offered petroleum found oil in Oloibiri, Nigeria in 1956 and came on stream creating 5,one hundred bpd. Generation of crude oil commenced in 1957 and in 1960, a overall of 847,000 tonnes of crude oil was exported.

Major Dates in Early Background of Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry

1908: Nigerian Bitumen Co. & British Colonial Petroleum commenced functions around Okitipupa.

1938: Shell D’ Arcy granted Exploration license to prospect for oil during Nigeria.

1955: Mobil Oil Company started operations in Nigeria.

1956: First successful effectively drilled at Oloibiri by Shell D’Arcy

1956: Altered identify to Shell-BP Petroleum Development Business of Nigeria Constrained.

1958: First shipment of oil from Nigeria.

1960: Other non-British corporations have been granted license to investigate for oil like Tenneco

The Mid Historical past (1961 – 1990) – at this interval, Nigeria was just comprehension its newest grounds as an oil exporter and developing its export market place. It was throughout this time that industrial exploitation of the country’s reserves started with the Nigerian Authorities introducing its initial laws governing the taxation of oil market revenue in which the profits have been to be shared 50-50 in between the govt and the oil businesses. By ibe kachikwu of the sixties, the Nigerian Govt regarded ways to employ the source getting exploited by the western international locations to produce the region and with this thought formulated its initial agreement for having fairness in 1 of the creating organizations, the Nigerian Agip Oil Company, jointly owned by Agip of Italy and Phillips of the United States. The choice to get up an equity stake-in impact the very first step towards the creation of the NNPC-was not, however, exercised until finally April 1971. In 1970, the finish of the Biafran war coincided with the rise in the entire world oil price, and Nigeria was in a position to experience quick riches from its oil production.

Significant Dates in Mid History of Nigerian Oil and Fuel Business

1961: Shell’s Bonny Terminal was commissioned Texaco Overseas began operations in Nigeria.

1962: Elf commenced operations in Nigeria. (As Safrap), Nigeria Agip Oil Business began functions in Nigeria

1963: Elf discovered Obagi discipline and Ubata gasoline area, Gulf’s 1st production

1965: Agip found its 1st oil at Ebocha, Phillips Oil Company commenced functions in then Bendel Condition

1966: Elf started production in Rivers Condition with twelve,000 b/d

1967: Phillips drilled its 1st nicely (Dry) at Osari -I, Phillips 1st oil discovery at Gilli-Gilli -I

1968: Mobil Producing Nigeria Restricted) was formed, Gulf’s Terminal at Escravos was commissioned

1970: Mobil began creation from four wells at Idoho Subject, Agip began production, Office of Petroleum Resources Inspectorate started.

1971: Shell’s Forcados Terminal Commissioned, Mobil’s terminal at Qua Iboe commissioned

1973: Very first Participation Arrangement Federal Federal government acquires 35% shares in the Oil Organizations, Ashland started PSC with then NNOC (NNPC), Pan Ocean Corporation drilled its 1st discovery effectively at Ogharefe -I

1974: Second Participation Settlement, Federal Authorities will increase equity to 55%, Elf formally changed its title from “Safrap”, Ashland’s 1st oil discovery at Ossu -I

1975: Initial Oil lifting from Brass Terminal by Agip, DPR upgraded to Ministry of Petroleum Resources

1976: MPE renamed Ministry of Petroleum Methods (MPR), Pan Ocean commenced generation through Shell-BP’s pipeline at a rate of ten,800 b/d

1977: Authorities set up Nigerian National Petroleum Company (NNPC) by Decree 33, (NNOC & MPR extinguished).

1979: Third Participation Agreement (during NNPC) increases fairness to 60%, Fourth Participation Arrangement BP’s shareholding nationalized, leaving NNPC with eighty% equity and Shell 20% in the joint Undertaking, Altered title to Shell Petroleum Improvement Firm of Nigeria (SPDC)

1984: Arrangement consolidating NNPC/Shel1 joint Enterprise.

1986: Signing of Memorandum of Knowing (MOU)

1988: Development of 12 strategic organization models, masking the whole spectrum of oil industry functions: Nigerian Petroleum Growth Organization (NPDC), Nigerian Fuel Business (NGC), Items and Pipelines Advertising and marketing Company (PPMC), Integrated Information Providers Limited (IDSL), National Engineering and Complex Business Constrained (NETCO),Hydrocarbon Providers Nigeria Limited (HYSON), Warri Refinery and Petrochemical Co. Limited (WRPC), Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Co. Limited (KRPC), Port Harcourt Refining Co. Minimal (PHRC), NNPC Retail, Duke Oil

1989: Fifth Participation Arrangement (NNPC=60%, Shell = 30%, Elf=5%, Agip=5%).

Recent Historical past (1991 – date) –

1991: Signing of Memorandum of Comprehending & joint Enterprise Operating Agreement (JOA)

1993: Creation Sharing Contracts signed -SNEPCO, Sixth Participation Agreement (NNPC=fifty five%, Shell=30%, Elf= ten%, Agip=five%), the coming on-stream of Elf’s Odudu blend, offshore OML 100.

1995: SNEPCO commences drilling very first Exploration nicely, NLNG’s Closing Investment decision Determination taken

1999: NLNG’s 1st shipment of Gasoline out of Bonny Terminal.

2000: NPDC/NAOC Services Contract signed

2001: Production of Okono offshore discipline.

2002: New PSCs agreement signed, Liberalization of the downstream oil sector, NNPC commences retail outlet plan.

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Travel & Tours

Can You Seriously Get Rid of Hemorrhoids With Drugstore Medicine?

There are several so-referred to as cures out there in the drugstore that are stated to be helpful for dealing with hemorrhoids. how to treat hemorrhoids at home fast will like you to understand that a lot of of these products are not produced to remedy or remove hemorrhoids completely but alternatively reduce you of itching, pain, swelling or bleeding quickly. From my stage of look at, I do not advise utilizing any sort of drugstore item that is not natural for making an attempt to remedy or handle hemorrhoids.

Listed here are some products that you need to have to take be aware if you do pick to buy a drugstore merchandise to take care of your hemorrhoids. Make sure you steer clear of employing a hemorrhoid product that is labeled to incorporate coloring, dyes, petrochemicals, additives or other chemical substances that is utilised for enhancement of its visual appeal and really feel. Your physique will stop up operating 2 times as difficult as your physique will require to cleanse away all people undesired resources as nicely in addition to healing your piles condition. So please remember to read the label of the solution very first just before you make the acquire. Do a agency examine to see what kind of substances and additives they incorporate and stay away from individuals products that include a good deal of dyes and additives.

Many of the drugstore medicines have anesthetics. They can aggravate and irritate the hemorrhoids you are attempting to get rid of. You may possibly want to contemplate using all-natural approaches to cure your hemorrhoids if you are nevertheless making use of one of these drugstore prescription drugs currently. In essence, I will like to say that people drugstore products generally only give short-term aid to your situation but do not remedy your hemorrhoids totally. For the greatest hemorrhoid remedy, it is extremely advised that you use natural treatments for piles treatment.

There are a assortment of all-natural cures that will perform effectively for nearly immediate hemorrhoids therapy. You should be aware that some natural treatments just take a little bit far more time to consider influence. Even so, what we are searching for is effectiveness to treatment your scenario totally and natural herbs do just that! There are a assortment of organic remedies to support you cure hemorrhoids on the net or you can appear for some of my other posts on hemorrhoids for help!

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Travel & Tours

Foreign exchange Robots – The Way to Find the Very best Foreign exchange Robotic For You is to Do Investigation, and More Investigation

If you want something to get carried out appropriate, pick the ideal. On selecting the correct automatic currency trading system to assist you in your ventures in the international trade (Foreign exchange), the exact same holds correct. Even so, the greatest is not always the most pricey.

The survival of the fittest guidelines in the Fx industry. The best have stood the crucible of the sword by means of the move of time. While other Fx robots are taken off the industry just as fast as they have been put in. Due to the fact Foreign exchange robots can make or split a trader, you should investigation which robot fits you or which you believe is the best in investing in the Fx market place.

Productive Forex robots have managed a steady admirer foundation since they handed specified conditions, and they have passed these conditions with flying hues. One of these standards is the quantity of “pips” that a investing robotic can include to your account every 7 days. It all boils down to making cash because you have bought the item as an investment to reaping a profit.

Other criteria which make a trading robotic the ideal in its course are usability and simplicity. Forex Trading need to not only have a rudimentary information of trading in the Forex market, you must be personal computer literate enough to install, operate and keep the software solution. The Forex trading robot would aid you by lowering the finding out curve. This signifies the interface of the plan need to be basic sufficient for a newbie to realize and operate it.

Nonetheless, you ought to nonetheless set in some time into learning and exploring the product to familiarize you with the frequent thread that binds all these details collectively. In short, investigation aids you to locate the forest from the trees.

Research helps make you sure if your potential Fx robot fulfills these conditions. Use the internet to gain info on the diverse methods obtainable and compare their specifications to support you determine which Forex technique suits you. Read posts on them and find a common thread via them. Shortly, you will be in a position to formulate a summary on the greatest Foreign exchange robotic that suits your want.

There are other conditions for an automatic buying and selling method to be the best in the Forex marketplace. But this is not the scope of this post. Suffice it to say that the ideal Forex trading robot is a buying and selling robotic which agrees with your style and personalized to your investing require.

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Producing a Newspaper Article – 4 Effective Secrets and techniques For Budding Information Writers

1. Be a excellent information author. You might think that this is quite apparent but I was stunned to discover out that there are so many budding news writers who do not even have standard information writing capabilities. Nicely, if you actually want to do well in this endeavor, you’ve obtained to acquire the required abilities and expertise in purchase to place collectively remarkable news articles or blog posts. It will help if you read news posts on a normal foundation and if you find out from those people who have excelled in this endeavor.

2. Stick with the fact. A great deal of information writers are resorting to blatant lies and some are sensationalizing their stories just to seize the interest of their target viewers. The threat in heading this route is that you are going to run the danger of losing the believe in and self confidence of your goal viewers. Bear in mind, if no person thinks in you, you’ve got obtained no future in this discipline. So, make certain that you always adhere with details. Do not current the info you have in hand unless you verify them and until you happen to be a hundred% confident that they’re based on information.

three. Hold it limited. Employing fillers and inserting irrelevant knowledge are huge no-no’s in the discipline of information creating. This is not only due to the fact you have very restricted place to fill but also since the viewers you might be serving are pressed for time. So, keep your posts centered and restricted. Existing only people info that your audience need to know.

four. Do not help save the best for last. Use the inverted pyramid strategy each and every time you write a news report. Current the most essential specifics at the beginning and the supporting data on your article entire body. This is a single way to make confident that you will be in a position to hold your readers interested.

Finding the appropriate summertime sneakers can be fairly a hard process, but in 2016 this is about to become a quite straightforward one particular! First you have to start off by picking the appropriate system for you! So we are sharing with you the newest style information & ideas for 2016.

We are just also tired from the stiletto heels, and all we want is comfort and ease, comfort and more convenience! They say substantial platforms are the proper reply, as they give optimum relaxation and a good addition to your search, but don’t they just make your search just so… chubby? This year selecting up the excellent platform is a very effortless method as the designers have labored on mixing the huge system with heels and the end result are amazing chunky heels that equilibrium out a excellent system and an astonishing search.

This summer time you will be rocking any seem at any time with the final comfort of sandals with a chunky heel. When you are getting people heels select a color that would be useful in your everyday existence and another a single that you would want to stand out. Go for suede sandals as they will be a excellent addition to any search what so ever! And whether you like an open front or a shut one, the designers have received you lined for this year.

And from remarkable platforms comes the most wonderful footwear style for ladies for this summer season: ankle boots. Now that you have picked the proper system, style your shoes flawlessly!

For a super lovable appear, style your ankle boots with a summer costume, and permit your ray shine.

You can also adopt these shoes with a pair of jeans and a good shirt. And to include some pep to your search, select a assertion necklace.

The very best piece to match with ankle boots for ladies is a wonderful cardigan. It can very easily suit the style you are adopting and give it this “negligee” facet. Pair it with a maxi dress and a nice cardigan for that killer classy apparel.

1 wonderful way to fashion your ankle boots is with a pair of denim shorts. Pick relatively dark color tights, fashion it with denim shorts and a shirt and include that special touch with the footwear.

Combine designs and adopt in spring 2016 all the most current style developments. Start off by pairing fringes with leather and studs in one particular pair of ankle boots.

Pair MSNBC Live Streaming with a crop best and some denims to make an exceptional trend assertion.

Go for shades! Get out of the program dull colors, and choose colourful ankle boots that can improve your look in the best ways at any time, feel pink, blue, beige.

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Travel & Tours

The Benefits of Enjoying Poker On the internet

Taking part in a match of poker with your buddies is always a excellent way to occupy a number of hours (or many), but what do you do when you appear into the realization that you are excellent adequate to perform with the large boys, or even for funds? Even though jumping the gun and attempting to enter higher-stakes money tournaments may be a bit out of the question, venturing online to engage in poker is more affordable and opens up literally 1000’s of new poker playing chances.

Taking Cara Daftar Poker in with your buddies most most likely entailed you and a couple of close friends sitting about a table playing aimlessly with minor plastic chips, however actively playing poker on the web signifies that you can enjoy from opponents from close to the world and from all varieties of distinct talent amounts from rookie to seasoned poker veterans. 1 of the finest factors of on the web poker is the simple fact that rookie poker players can sharpen their expertise as effectively as begin enjoying for funds, or taking part in for more funds.

If you have at any time imagined about how numerous different versions there are to poker, then you will appear into the realization that there are several distinct approaches to play. Most people have read of Texas Keep-Em, especially taking into consideration that it is extremely common between poker lovers both on-line and at a bodily poker desk. There are also other common variations of poker such as Omaha, Five-Card Draw and 7-Card Stud and hundreds of not-as-widespread versions this sort of as H.O.R.S.E poker and Caribbean-Stud poker. No issue what the sport, having the plunge into the vast planet of on-line poker will usually have a location for every thing.

For some cause or one more, a great deal of folks will not perform like they mean it close to their pals or loved ones. This could stem from a selection of distinct reasons from currently being shy to not seeking to engage in intense since they are your friends or family members. Possibly way, all that can modify by enjoying on-line just simply because you have no relation or tie to your opponents normally and can simply enjoy to get. Regardless of whether you are enjoying on-line or with folks you know, you ought to always perform to win due to the fact your popularity can be constructed larger and you could possibly get income by performing so.

On the web poker generally by no means will take a split. No make a difference the place in the planet you are, there are constantly going to online matches and tournaments occurring consistently. If you want to play a no-limit spherical of on the internet poker at 3 a.m. then there will most likely be hundreds of open up tables at a range of on the internet casinos. The time and day have no impact on on the internet poker at all you can enjoy at three a.m., 10 p.m. or no matter what time, 7 days a 7 days. That signifies you do not have to gather all of your buddies together, or wait around for a neighborhood event rather you can play impulsively every time you feel like it.

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Best Applications for Organization – Tiny Organization Advertising Strategy

If you have a local business and are hunting for a little business marketing strategy that works, then you need to spend in the ideal apps for enterprise advertising. Business applications are fast getting to be the new lookup motor for mobile and tablet searches and getting edge of this engineering is now cost-effective for little organizations.

Little Enterprise Advertising and marketing Strategy

Marketing and advertising is generally a single of the most pricey elements to any small enterprise, but a vital for expansion. Classic advertising and marketing approaches this kind of as flyers and postcards can operate really well, but as more and more individuals count on their cell telephones for instantaneous info and become much more accustomed to instantaneous gratification when looking for info this is the perfect way to encourage. E-mail advertising is estimated to have only a 4% open up and read through fee, so ninety six% of the price of email marketing is wasted. Cell advertising and marketing has a ninety seven% open up and go through price and is also situated on your nearby clients mobiles which they have with them all working day prolonged.

A single of the biggest positive aspects of cellular marketing is the capacity to achieve folks immediately. With thrust notifications, you can send out a every day specific and as the premier percentage of notifications are study inside an hour of becoming despatched. Ecom Income Blueprint can bring the clients via the door minutes soon after sending out your notification.

No other marketing resource, with the exception of Google maps, provides you this sort of a geographically focused viewers for your tiny company marketing strategy. When creating use of the two these new systems, you can dominate your market place as effectively as make certain that you only make use of permission based marketing.

What are the Very best Apps for Company

Creating use of interactive applications for your company advertising and marketing will ensure that your consumers arrive back for a lot more. Some of the greatest functions integrated in the applications are reward applications that provide free of charge bargains following a specific variety of purchases or reductions for loyal buyers. A a single touch make contact with button signifies ease of use and generating use of GPS capabilities means currently being capable to provide entertaining interactive offers to people who venture inside of a radius of your shop.

Your app need to also incorporate endless notifications so that you can offer as a lot of specials to as many neighborhood citizens as you would like to with no possessing to incur added expenses. The ideal applications for business should require a one set up and improvement price with a reduced routine maintenance and assistance month to month value. Until finally not too long ago small organizations might have found the cost-tag of 5 to fifteen thousand dollars considerably past their get to for improvement charges, and luckily, this is not longer required. For an preliminary investment decision of close to $1500 for growth and less than $40 a month support charge, you can have unrestricted notifications.


The New York Occasions mentioned that cell marketing and advertising is the most potent media at any time invented and now is the time to consider advantage of it and expand your enterprise. You can start marketing your enterprise to regional citizens and can commence to see final results within your really initial notification submission. As a small enterprise advertising method the expense you make in the greatest apps for business signifies spending considerably less and achieving more consumers who want your companies and items.

For a free of charge mock up app for your enterprise and a chance to see what your app will seem like as well as what it can do for your neighborhood enterprise, pay a visit to [] and request your quite own cost-free mock up application.

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Travel & Tours

Perform Poker On-line – Become a Millionaire Today!

Individuals are constantly searching into the possibility of hitting big time, regardless of whether in variety or card game titles. They incessantly attempt their luck by taking part in frequently till they locate the excellent match to get the sport and conquer other players. This is not astonishing at all, due to the fact like in poker, you could even acquire $ten, 000 if you engage in poker on the internet. That is a large sum for added funds from a game.

Poker is a really common sport that has absent mainstream, specifically in The united states. So how do you enjoy poker on the web then? If you know the fundamental policies in enjoying poker, on-line poker would not be a difficult time to modify. Even so, you need to understand that there are distinct distinctions amongst poker in a on line casino and poker on the internet.

You are not able to cheat if you perform poker on-line. Enjoying only transpires on a digital table, which implies you do not enjoy encounter to face for them to read through your actual physical response. You have far more alternatives on how much to enjoy and where to perform since there are a whole lot of poker rooms open for playing. However, of program, you cannot lay you bet on a desk when you perform poker on the web. So what transpires is that you make some kind of a deposit to the software’s cashier in the poker space of your selection to have your chips for the game while as opposed to in genuine on the web poker place or on line casino poker exactly where you deposit it to a true cashier. If you want to quit the recreation, you can always pull out the chips. For Cara Daftar Poker , check is the most frequently utilised form.

Apart from these talked about distinctions, the policies, the fingers, and the general sport are similar to a standard poker area. Even now, if you play poker on-line, there are suggestions that you want to don’t forget. Like when you want to bluff the other player, facial expressions are common with that of actual poker space, but with on the internet poker, it is far more valuable and obvious to bluff by means of your bets. When you give a substantial stake for your card, the other on-line player will get the emotion that you have great cards and prepared to defeat him down.

You also need to remind by yourself that it will take some time to create a popularity in on-line poker. Considering that on-line enjoying is a totally free shift, players will go about as usually as they want to so this presents you and other gamers higher possibility of playing with many gamers if each of you did not like every single one’s match variations.

Nicely, like in any opposition for that matter, establishing your persona and the design of your game is constantly a extended journey for everyone. You could acquire or shed, then shed again. That is what match is all about anyway. If you take place to have a comfortable coronary heart for competitors and no tolerance to set up your title in any action, then you cannot play poker on the internet or any associated gaming.

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Straightforward Vaporizing With Severe Q Vaporizer

Unveiled to the mass market place in 2008 by the renowned Canadian vaporizer producer, Arizer, the Extreme Q Vaporizer simply won customers’ heart by giving better, user-friendly device design and style, faster heat up time and a selection of other valuable functions that were not accessible in the prior versions. With upgraded unit that is geared up with triple warmth sensors, well-developed distant controller and an AC adapter, the Intense Q Vaporizer provides effortless controlling and cleaning. In truth, it is the only vaporizer gadget today to have a remote managed activation program.

The stainless steel Excessive Q is light-weight and hugely portable. Its higher portion sits securely on a lower stainless steel foundation with Liquid crystal display exhibit screen and purpose buttons on it. When you acquire the Excessive Q Vaporizer, you do not just buy an common vaporizer. This vaporizer could work in a a few distinct methods: as a potpourri warmer, as an oil diffuser, and as an aromatherapy vaporizer. The a few-in-one particular Excessive Q Vaporizer will come with a Potpourri Dish and a Potpourri sample to get you began. Regular warmth-up time is about two to 3 minutes, and the Vaporizer temperature could go from as minimal as 104 diploma Fahrenheit to 400 diploma Fahrenheit. In the meantime, cooling down time is also rapidly, about two minutes every time.

Speaking of the temperature, the Excessive Q Vaporizer digital temperature management and car timer permits consumer to make use of various kinds of herbs to vaporize and automate the timer. Its automobile timer permits for automobile shut off attribute that allows the vaporizer to shut off by by itself up to 4 hours from the time you change on the vaporizer, in accordance to your auto timer customization. The super-long vapor whip functions to supply conventional vaporizer experience, while the inert tubing (balloon fill technique) makes it possible for for distinct densities of the vapor filling according to your preferences. Excessive Q balloon fill system, merged with three velocity follower program makes it possible for for wealthy vaporization experience.

To get items started, just flip on the Extreme Q and established the temperature to its highest placing for about thirty minutes to totally get rid of (burn up out) the manufacturer’s packing oils on the Intense Q Vaporizer. You may possibly set your favourite herbs to the Extreme Q Vaporizer Pyrex cyclone bowl and alter the temperature to 350 degrees, which is a very good commencing temperature for vaporization. Enable it sit about one-two minutes just before you attach the Excessive Q Vaporizer extra-prolonged whip.

Back again to , the Lcd display’s handle panel allows consumer to examine and set the temperature, fan pace, timer, and actual temperature every now and then. You can even select regardless of whether to see the Severe Q temperature in Celsius or Fahrenheit. The Extreme Q distant management also permits for easy activation of the vaporizer from a length, the way you want it to: from shifting the supporter speed, temperature, timer, to the Liquid crystal display gentle on the foundation, operation is as straightforward as one-2-three. This vaporizer will come with a life span warranty that is limited to typical use for the heating component and the Liquid crystal display display.

For you who stay in North The united states and are worried about the voltage, the Arizer Excessive Q is transported full with a 110 volt technique. Getting substitute parts is uncomplicated and the areas are cost-effective. Taking into consideration the functions provided and benefit, the Excessive Q Vaporizer is a wonderful selection for folks who are making use of vaporization a great deal, and are seeking for top quality vaporizer at great value.

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